Katy Trinkley, PharmD, PhD
Visiting Associate Professor, Family Medicine

Graduate Schools :
  • PharmD, Purdue University
  • PhD, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
Department: Family Medicine

Research Interests

My research applies practical implementation science principles to 1) advance the vision of learning health systems (LHS) and 2) create innovative clinical decision support (CDS) solutions that are consistently effective and promote health equity across health systems. One of my missions is to positively change the way we think about CDS within the electronic health record by designing creative solutions that seamlessly integrate into clinical workflows, are positively received by clinicians, and that ultimately optimize treatment and outcomes for patients.


  • Kuo GM, Trinkley KE, Rabin B. Research and Scholarly Methods: Implementation Science Studies. J Am Coll Clin Pharm. 2022 Sep;5(9):995-1004. PubMed PMID: 36212610
  • Trinkley KE, Ho PM, Glasgow RE, Huebschmann AG. How Dissemination and Implementation Science Can Contribute to the Advancement of Learning Health Systems. Acad Med. 2022 Oct 1;97(10):1447-1458. PubMed PMID: 35796045
  • Simon ST, Trinkley KE, Malone DC, Rosenberg MA. Interpretable Machine Learning Prediction of Drug-Induced QT Prolongation: Electronic Health Record Analysis. J Med Internet Res. 2022 Dec 1;24(12):e42163. PubMed PMID: 36454608
  • Huebschmann AG, Trinkley KE, Gritz M, Glasgow RE. Pragmatic considerations and approaches for measuring staff time as an implementation cost in health systems and clinics: key issues and applied examples. Implement Sci Commun. 2022 Apr 15;3(1):44. PubMed PMID: 35428326
  • Maten N, Kroehl ME, Loeb DF, Bhat S, Ota T, Billups SJ, Schilling LM, Heckman S, Reingardt C, Trinkley KE. An evaluation of clinical decision support tools for Patient Health Questionnaire-9 administration. Ment Health Clin. 2021 Sep;11(5):267-273. PubMed PMID: 34621601
  • Kluemper A, Heath L, Loeb D, Kroehl M, Trinkley K. Depression-related stigma among primary care providers. Ment Health Clin. 2021 May;11(3):175-180. PubMed PMID: 34026392
  • Trinkley KE, Pell JM, Martinez DD, Maude NR, Hale G, Rosenberg MA. Assessing Prescriber Behavior with a Clinical Decision Support Tool to Prevent Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome. Appl Clin Inform. 2021 Jan;12(1):190-197. PubMed PMID: 33694143
  • Allen LA, Venechuk G, McIlvennan CK, Page RL 2nd, Knoepke CE, Helmkamp LJ, Khazanie P, Peterson PN, Pierce K, Harger G, Thompson JS, Dow TJ, Richards L, Huang J, Strader JR, Trinkley KE, Kao DP, Magid DJ, Buttrick PM, Matlock DD. An Electronically Delivered Patient-Activation Tool for Intensification of Medications for Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: The EPIC-HF Trial. Circulation. 2021 Feb 2;143(5):427-437. PubMed PMID: 33201741
  • Bhat S, Kroehl M, Maniga B, Navarro A, Thompson AM, Lam HM, Trinkley KE. Patient Outreaches for Clinical Pharmacy Services: A Population Health Management Program Assessment. J Pharm Pract. 2021 Feb;34(1):58-63. PubMed PMID: 31238771
  • Trinkley KE, Kroehl ME, Kahn MG, Allen LA, Bennett TD, Hale G, Haugen H, Heckman S, Kao DP, Kim J, Matlock DM, Malone DC, Page Nd RL, Stine J, Suresh K, Wells L, Lin CT. Applying Clinical Decision Support Design Best Practices With the Practical Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model Versus Reliance on Commercially Available Clinical Decision Support Tools: Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Med Inform. 2021 Mar 22;9(3):e24359. PubMed PMID: 33749610
  • Venechuk GE, Khazanie P, Page RL 2nd, Knoepke CE, Helmkamp LJ, Peterson PN, Pierce K, Thompson JS, Huang J, Strader JR, Dow TJ, Richards L, Trinkley KE, Kao DP, McIlvennan CK, Magid DJ, Buttrick PM, Matlock DD, Allen LA. An Electronically delivered, Patient-activation tool for Intensification of medications for Chronic Heart Failure with reduced ejection fraction: Rationale and design of the EPIC-HF trial. Am Heart J. 2020 Nov;229:144-155. PubMed PMID: 32866454
  • Bhat S, Derington CG, Trinkley KE. Clinicians' Values and Preferences for Medication Adherence and Cost Clinical Decision Support in Primary Care: A Qualitative Study. Appl Clin Inform. 2020 May;11(3):405-414. PubMed PMID: 32492717
  • Trinkley KE, Kahn MG, Bennett TD, Glasgow RE, Haugen H, Kao DP, Kroehl ME, Lin CT, Malone DC, Matlock DD. Integrating the Practical Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model With Best Practices in Clinical Decision Support Design: Implementation Science Approach. J Med Internet Res. 2020 Oct 29;22(10):e19676. PubMed PMID: 33118943
  • Kao DP, Trinkley KE, Lin CT. Heart Failure Management Innovation Enabled by Electronic Health Records. JACC Heart Fail. 2020 Mar;8(3):223-233. PubMed PMID: 31926853
  • Trinkley KE, Sturm AM, Porter K, Nahata MC. Efficacy and Safety of Atypical Antipsychotics for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia Among Community Dwelling Adults. J Pharm Pract. 2020 Feb;33(1):7-14. PubMed PMID: 29695193
  • Aquilante CL, Kao DP, Trinkley KE, Lin CT, Crooks KR, Hearst EC, Hess SJ, Kudron EL, Lee YM, Liko I, Lowery J, Mathias RA, Monte AA, Rafaels N, Rioth MJ, Roberts ER, Taylor MR, Williamson C, Barnes KC. Clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics via a health system-wide research biobank: the University of Colorado experience. Pharmacogenomics. 2020 Apr;21(6):375-386. PubMed PMID: 32077359
  • Derington CG, King JB, Delate T, Botts SR, Kroehl M, Kao DP, Trinkley KE. Twice-daily versus once-daily lisinopril and losartan for hypertension: Real-world effectiveness and safety. PLoS One. 2020;15(12):e0243371. PubMed PMID: 33270787
  • Trinkley KE, Kahn MG, Allen LA, Haugen H, Kroehl ME, Lin CT, Malone DC, Matlock DD. Patient Treatment Preferences for Heart Failure Medications: A Mixed Methods Study. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2020;14:2225-2230. PubMed PMID: 33204073
  • Derington CG, Gums TH, Bress AP, Herrick JS, Greene TH, Moran AE, Weintraub WS, Kronish IM, Morisky DE, Trinkley KE, Saseen JJ, Reynolds K, Bates JT, Berlowitz DR, Chang TI, Chonchol M, Cushman WC, Foy CG, Herring CT, Katz LA, Krousel-Wood M, Pajewski NM, Tamariz L, King JB. Association of Total Medication Burden With Intensive and Standard Blood Pressure Control and Clinical Outcomes: A Secondary Analysis of SPRINT. Hypertension. 2019 Aug;74(2):267-275. PubMed PMID: 31256717
  • Bhat S, Kroehl M, Yi WM, Jaeger J, Thompson AM, Lam HM, Loeb D, Trinkley KE. Factors influencing the acceptance of referrals for clinical pharmacist managed disease states in primary care. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2019 May - Jun;59(3):336-342. PubMed PMID: 30948239
  • Yang M, Loeb DF, Sprowell AJ, Trinkley KE. Design and Implementation of a Depression Registry for Primary Care. Am J Med Qual. 2019 Jan Feb;34(1):59-66. PubMed PMID: 30008227
  • Zeleznikar EA, Kroehl ME, Perica KM, Thompson AM, Trinkley KE. Integration of Community Pharmacists in Transition of Care (TOC) Services: Current Trends and Pharmacist Perceptions. J Pharm Pract. 2019 Feb;32(1):28-35. PubMed PMID: 29061080
  • Trinkley KE, Blakeslee WW, Matlock DD, Kao DP, Van Matre AG, Harrison R, Larson CL, Kostman N, Nelson JA, Lin CT, Malone DC. Clinician preferences for computerised clinical decision support for medications in primary care: a focus group study. BMJ Health Care Inform. 2019 Apr;26(1):0. PubMed PMID: 31039120
  • Trinkley KE, Anderson HD, Nair KV, Malone DC, Saseen JJ. Assessing the incidence of acidosis in patients receiving metformin with and without risk factors for lactic acidosis. Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2018 Sep;9(9):179-190. PubMed PMID: 30181847
  • Bhat S, Kroehl ME, Trinkley KE, Chow Z, Heath LJ, Billups SJ, Loeb DF. Evaluation of a Clinical Pharmacist-Led Multidisciplinary Antidepressant Telemonitoring Service in the Primary Care Setting. Popul Health Manag. 2018 Oct;21(5):366-372. PubMed PMID: 29211661
  • Sturm AS, Trinkley KE, Porter K, Nahata MC. Efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics for behavioral symptoms of dementia among patients residing in long-term care. Int J Clin Pharm. 2018 Feb;40(1):135-142. PubMed PMID: 29189977
  • Trinkley KE, Weed HG, Beatty SJ, Porter K, Nahata MC. Identification and Characterization of Adverse Drug Events in Primary Care. Am J Med Qual. 2017 Sep Oct;32(5):518-525. PubMed PMID: 27561696
  • Tsai T, Kroehl ME, Smith SM, Thompson AM, Dai IY, Trinkley KE. Efficacy and safety of twice- vs once-daily dosing of lisinopril for hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2017 Sep;19(9):868-873. PubMed PMID: 28439946
  • Trinkley KE, Van Matre ET, Mueller SW, Page RL 2nd, Nair K. Perceived Benefit of Teaching Patient Safety to Pharmacy Students by Integrating Classroom Teaching With Introductory (IPPE) Visits. J Pharm Pract. 2017 Feb;30(1):115-120. PubMed PMID: 26519253
  • Norman JL, Kroehl ME, Lam HM, Lewis CL, Mitchell CN, O'Bryant CL, Trinkley KE. Implementation of a pharmacist-managed clinic for patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2017 Aug 15;74(16):1229-1235. PubMed PMID: 28790075
  • Furbish SML, Kroehl ME, Loeb DF, Lam HM, Lewis CL, Nelson J, Chow Z, Trinkley KE. A Pharmacist-Physician Collaboration to Optimize Benzodiazepine Use for Anxiety and Sleep Symptom Control in Primary Care. J Pharm Pract. 2017 Aug;30(4):425-433. PubMed PMID: 27480874
  • Truong H, Kroehl ME, Lewis C, Pettigrew R, Bennett M, Saseen JJ, Trinkley KE. Clinical pharmacists in primary care: Provider satisfaction and perceived impact on quality of care provided. SAGE Open Med. 2017;5:2050312117713911. PubMed PMID: 28638617
  • Trinkley KE, Malone DC, Nelson JA, Saseen JJ. Prescribing attitudes, behaviors and opinions regarding metformin for patients with diabetes: a focus group study. Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2016 Sep;7(5):220-8. PubMed PMID: 27583122
  • Skiba DJ, Barton AJ, Estes K, Gilliam E, Knapfel S, Lee C, Moore G, Trinkley K. Preparing the Next Generation of Advanced Practice Nurses for Connected Care. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2016;225:307-13. PubMed PMID: 27332212
  • Smith SM, Hasan M, Huebschmann AG, Penaloza R, Schorr-Ratzlaff W, Sieja A, Roscoe N, Trinkley KE. Physician Acceptance of a Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Treatment Model for Hypertension Management in Primary Care. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2015 Sep;17(9):686-91. PubMed PMID: 26032586
  • Goldberg T, Kroehl ME, Suddarth KH, Trinkley KE. Variations in Metformin Prescribing for Type 2 Diabetes. J Am Board Fam Med. 2015 Nov-Dec;28(6):777-84. PubMed PMID: 26546654
  • Trinkley KE, Sill BE, Porter K, Nahata MC. Prescribing Patterns for Outpatient Treatment of Constipation, Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Related Constipation, and Opioid-Induced Constipation: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2015 Nov;21(11):1077-87. PubMed PMID: 26521119
  • VanderWeide LA, Smith SM, Trinkley KE. A systematic review of the efficacy of venlafaxine for the treatment of fibromyalgia. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2015 Feb;40(1):1-6. PubMed PMID: 25294655
  • Trinkley KE, Nahata MC. Medication management of irritable bowel syndrome. Digestion. 2014;89(4):253-67. PubMed PMID: 24992947
  • Skiba DJ, Barton AJ, Knapfel S, Moore G, Trinkley K. Infusing informatics into interprofessional education: the iTEAM (Interprofessional Technology Enhanced Advanced practice Model) project. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2014;201:55-62. PubMed PMID: 24943525
  • Trinkley KE, Nikels SM, Page RL 2nd, Joy MS. Automating and estimating glomerular filtration rate for dosing medications and staging chronic kidney disease. Int J Gen Med. 2014;7:211-8. PubMed PMID: 24833913
  • Nuffer W, Smith SM, Trinkley K. Integrating virtual reality to expand the public health role of community pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2013 Mar-Apr;53(2):152-8. PubMed PMID: 23571622
  • Smith SM, Meyer M, Trinkley KE. Phentermine/topiramate for the treatment of obesity. Ann Pharmacother. 2013 Mar;47(3):340-9. PubMed PMID: 23482732
  • Trinkley KE, Page RL 2nd, Lien H, Yamanouye K, Tisdale JE. QT interval prolongation and the risk of torsades de pointes: essentials for clinicians. Curr Med Res Opin. 2013 Dec;29(12):1719-26. PubMed PMID: 24020938
  • Trinkley KE, Nahata MC. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2011 Jun;36(3):275-82. PubMed PMID: 21545610
  • Nahata MC, Trinkley KE. Opioid doses and increased risk for overdose. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Jul 6;153(1):59; author reply 59-60. PubMed PMID: 20621907
  • Trinkley KE, Porter K, Nahata MC. Prescribing patterns for the outpatient treatment of constipation in the United States. Dig Dis Sci. 2010 Dec;55(12):3514-20. PubMed PMID: 20397053
  • Kim R, Suresh, K, Rosenberg MA, MD; Tan, MS, Malone DM, Allen LA, Kao DP, Anderson HD, Tiwari P, Trinkley KE. A machine learning evaluation of patient characteristics associated with prescribing of guideline-directed medical therapy for heart failure. Am J Card -SUBMITTED
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Clinical Interests
Chronic medication management

Public Speaking

General Information

Graduate Schools:
  • PharmD, Purdue University (0001)
  • PhD, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (0001)
Department: Family Medicine
Contact Us
CU Anschutz
Fitzsimons Building

13001 East 17th Place
Campus Box C290
Aurora, CO 80045

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