Raul Torres, PhD
Professor, Immunology and Microbiology

Graduate School :
  • PhD, University of Washington
Department: Immunology and Microbiology

Professional Titles

  • Professor of Immunology & Microbiology


  • Pelanda R, Greaves SA, Alves da Costa T, Cedrone LM, Campbell ML, Torres RM. B-cell intrinsic and extrinsic signals that regulate central tolerance of mouse and human B cells. Immunol Rev. 2022 May;307(1):12-26. PubMed PMID: 34997597
  • Kremer KN, Buser A, Thumkeo D, Narumiya S, Jacobelli J, Pelanda R, Torres RM. LPA suppresses T cell function by altering the cytoskeleton and disrupting immune synapse formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Apr 12;119(15):e2118816119. PubMed PMID: 35394866
  • Peterson JN, Boackle SA, Taitano SH, Sang A, Lang J, Kelly M, Rahkola JT, Miranda AM, Sheridan RM, Thurman JM, Rao VK, Torres RM, Pelanda R. Elevated Detection of Dual Antibody B Cells Identifies Lupus Patients With B Cell-Reactive VH4-34 Autoantibodies. Front Immunol. 2022;13:795209. PubMed PMID: 35185888
  • Castleman MJ, Stumpf MM, Therrien NR, Smith MJ, Lesteberg KE, Palmer BE, Maloney JP, Janssen WJ, Mould KJ, Beckham JD, Pelanda R, Torres RM. SARS-CoV-2 infection relaxes peripheral B cell tolerance. J Exp Med. 2022 Jun 6;219(6). PubMed PMID: 35420627
  • Turner JA, Paton EL, Van Gulick R, Stefanoni D, Cendali F, Reisz J, Tobin RP, McCarter M, D'Alessandro A, Torres RM, Robinson WA, Couts KL, Schlaepfer IR. BRAF Modulates Lipid Use and Accumulation. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Apr 23;14(9). PubMed PMID: 35565240
  • Castleman MJ, Stumpf MM, Therrien NR, Smith MJ, Lesteberg KE, Palmer BE, Maloney JP, Janssen WJ, Mould KJ, Beckham JD, Pelanda R, Torres RM. Autoantibodies elicited with SARS-CoV-2 infection are linked to alterations in double negative B cells. Front Immunol. 2022;13:988125. PubMed PMID: 36131937
  • Mathew D, Torres RM. Lysophosphatidic Acid Is an Inflammatory Lipid Exploited by Cancers for Immune Evasion via Mechanisms Similar and Distinct From CTLA-4 and PD-1. Front Immunol. 2021;11:531910. PubMed PMID: 33584637
  • Alves da Costa T, Peterson JN, Lang J, Shulman J, Liang X, Freed BM, Boackle SA, Lauzurica P, Torres RM, Pelanda R. Central human B cell tolerance manifests with a distinctive cell phenotype and is enforced via CXCR4 signaling in hu-mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Apr 20;118(16). PubMed PMID: 33850015
  • Marín-Jiménez JA, Capasso A, Lewis MS, Bagby SM, Hartman SJ, Shulman J, Navarro NM, Yu H, Rivard CJ, Wang X, Barkow JC, Geng D, Kar A, Yingst A, Tufa DM, Dolan JT, Blatchford PJ, Freed BM, Torres RM, Davila E, Slansky JE, Pelanda R, Eckhardt SG, Messersmith WA, Diamond JR, Lieu CH, Verneris MR, Wang JH, Kiseljak-Vassiliades K, Pitts TM, Lang J. Testing Cancer Immunotherapy in a Human Immune System Mouse Model: Correlating Treatment Responses to Human Chimerism, Therapeutic Variables and Immune Cell Phenotypes. Front Immunol. 2021;12:607282. PubMed PMID: 33854497
  • Fujiwara Y, Torphy RJ, Sun Y, Miller EN, Ho F, Borcherding N, Wu T, Torres RM, Zhang W, Schulick RD, Zhu Y. The GPR171 pathway suppresses T cell activation and limits antitumor immunity. Nat Commun. 2021 Oct 6;12(1):5857. PubMed PMID: 34615877
  • Agazio A, Cimons J, Shotts KM, Guo K, Santiago ML, Pelanda R, Torres RM. Histone H2A-Reactive B Cells Are Functionally Anergic in Healthy Mice With Potential to Provide Humoral Protection Against HIV-1. Front Immunol. 2020;11:1565. PubMed PMID: 32849530
  • Lee SC, Dacheux MA, Norman DD, Balázs L, Torres RM, Augelli-Szafran CE, Tigyi GJ. Regulation of Tumor Immunity by Lysophosphatidic Acid. Cancers (Basel). 2020 May 10;12(5). PubMed PMID: 32397679
  • Mathew, D. and Torres, R.M. Lysophosphatidic Acid is an anti-inflammatory lipid exploited by cancers for immune evasion via mechanisms similar and distinct from CTLA-4 and PD-1. Frontiers in Immunology, in press, 2020
  • Alves da Costa, T., Peterson, J.N., Lang, J., Freed, B.M., Boackle, S.A., Lauzurica, P., Torres, R.M. and Pelanda, R. CXCR4 enforces central tolerance by restraining bone marrow exit of autoreactive human B cells in human immune system mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., in revision, 2020
  • Mathew D, Kremer KN, Torres RM. ARHGEF1 deficiency reveals Ga13-associated GPCRs are critical regulators of human lymphocyte function. J Clin Invest. 2019 Feb 4. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30714991
  • Mathew D, Kremer KN, Torres RM. ARHGEF1 deficiency reveals Ga13-associated GPCRs are critical regulators of human lymphocyte function. J Clin Invest. 2019 Mar 1;129(3):965-968. PubMed PMID: 30714991
  • Greaves SA, Peterson JN, Strauch P, Torres RM, Pelanda R. Active PI3K abrogates central tolerance in high-avidity autoreactive B cells. J Exp Med. 2019 May 6;216(5):1135-1153. PubMed PMID: 30948496
  • Mathew D, Kremer KN, Strauch P, Tigyi G, Pelanda R, Torres RM. LPA(5) Is an Inhibitory Receptor That Suppresses CD8 T-Cell Cytotoxic Function via Disruption of Early TCR Signaling. Front Immunol. 2019;10:1159. PubMed PMID: 31231367
  • Agazio A, Torres RM. Ushering along B cells to neutralize HIV. Science. 2019 Dec 6;366(6470):1197-1198. PubMed PMID: 31806801
  • Greaves SA, Peterson JN, Torres RM, Pelanda R. Corrigendum: Activation of the MEK-ERK Pathway Is Necessary but Not Sufficient for Breaking Central B Cell Tolerance. Front Immunol. 2018;9:2218. PubMed PMID: 30323810
  • Sang A, Danhorn T, Peterson JN, Rankin AL, O'Connor BP, Leach SM, Torres RM, Pelanda R. Innate and adaptive signals enhance differentiation and expansion of dual-antibody autoreactive B cells in lupus. Nat Commun. 2018 Sep 28;9(1):3973. PubMed PMID: 30266981
  • Agazio AE, Pelanda R, Torres RM. Silencing of TLM B cells by chronic HIV infection. Nat Immunol. 2018 Sep;19(9):902-903. PubMed PMID: 30104630
  • Atif SM, Gibbings SL, Redente EF, Camp FA, Torres RM, Kedl RM, Henson PM, Jakubzick CV. Immune Surveillance by Natural IgM Is Required for Early Neoantigen Recognition and Initiation of Adaptive Immunity. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2018 Nov;59(5):580-591. PubMed PMID: 29953261
  • Lang J, Zhang B, Kelly M, Peterson JN, Barbee J, Freed BM, Di Santo JP, Matsuda JL, Torres RM, Pelanda R. Replacing mouse BAFF with human BAFF does not improve B-cell maturation in hematopoietic humanized mice. Blood Adv. 2017 Dec 26;1(27):2729-2741. PubMed PMID: 29296925
  • Carbone ML, Chadeuf G, Heurtebise-Chrétien S, Prieur X, Quillard T, Goueffic Y, Vaillant N, Rio M, Castan L, Durand M, Baron-Menguy C, Aureille J, Desfrançois J, Tesse A, Torres RM, Loirand G. Leukocyte RhoA exchange factor Arhgef1 mediates vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. J Clin Invest. 2017 Nov 13. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29130930
  • Schroeder KM, Agazio A, Torres RM. Immunological tolerance as a barrier to protective HIV humoral immunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2017 Aug;47:26-34. PubMed PMID: 28728075
  • Schroeder KMS, Agazio A, Strauch PJ, Jones ST, Thompson SB, Harper MS, Pelanda R, Santiago ML, Torres RM. Breaching peripheral tolerance promotes the production of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies. J Exp Med. 2017 Aug 7;214(8):2283-2302. PubMed PMID: 28698284
  • Chisholm CF, Soucie KR, Song JS, Strauch P, Torres RM, Carpenter JF, Ragheb JA, Randolph TW. Immunogenicity of Structurally Perturbed Hen Egg Lysozyme Adsorbed to Silicone Oil Microdroplets in Wild-Type and Transgenic Mouse Models. J Pharm Sci. 2017 Jun;106(6):1519-1527. PubMed PMID: 28216023
  • Lang J, Ota T, Kelly M, Strauch P, Freed BM, Torres RM, Nemazee D, Pelanda R. Receptor editing and genetic variability in human autoreactive B cells. J Exp Med. 2016 Jan 11;213(1):93-108. PubMed PMID: 26694971
  • Born WK, Huang Y, Zeng W, Torres RM, O'Brien RL. A Special Connection between ?d T Cells and Natural Antibodies?. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2016 Dec;64(6):455-462. PubMed PMID: 27235134
  • Hawman DW, Fox JM, Ashbrook AW, May NA, Schroeder KM, Torres RM, Crowe JE Jr, Dermody TS, Diamond MS, Morrison TE. Pathogenic Chikungunya Virus Evades B Cell Responses to Establish Persistence. Cell Rep. 2016 Aug 2;16(5):1326-38. PubMed PMID: 27452455
  • Malarkey CS, Gustafson CE, Saifee JF, Torres RM, Churchill ME, Janoff EN. Mechanism of Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A Attenuation of CpG-Induced Antibody Production. PLoS One. 2016 Jun 9;11(6):e0157157. PubMed PMID: 27280778
  • Saumyaa, Pujanauski L, Colino J, Flora M, Torres RM, Tuomanen E, Snapper CM. Pneumococcal Surface Protein A Plays a Major Role in Streptococcus pneumoniae-Induced Immunosuppression. J Immunol. 2016 May 1;196(9):3677-85. PubMed PMID: 27029587
  • Chisholm CF, Baker AE, Soucie KR, Torres RM, Carpenter JF, Randolph TW. Silicone Oil Microdroplets Can Induce Antibody Responses Against Recombinant Murine Growth Hormone in Mice. J Pharm Sci. 2016 May;105(5):1623-32. PubMed PMID: 27020987
  • Lang J, Ota T, Kelly M, Strauch P, Freed BM, Torres RM, Nemazee D, Pelanda R. Receptor editing and genetic variability in human autoreactive B cells. J Exp Med. 2016 Jan 11;213(1):93-108. PubMed PMID: 26694971
  • Christie M, Peritt D, Torres RM, Randolph TW, Carpenter JF. The Role of Protein Excipient in Driving Antibody Responses to Erythropoietin. J Pharm Sci. 2015 Dec;104(12):4041-55. PubMed PMID: 26375484
  • Chisholm CF, Nguyen BH, Soucie KR, Torres RM, Carpenter JF, Randolph TW. In Vivo Analysis of the Potency of Silicone Oil Microdroplets as Immunological Adjuvants in Protein Formulations. J Pharm Sci. 2015 Nov;104(11):3681-90. PubMed PMID: 26190624
  • Christie M, Torres RM, Kedl RM, Randolph TW, Carpenter JF. Recombinant murine growth hormone particles are more immunogenic with intravenous than subcutaneous administration. J Pharm Sci. 2014 Jan;103(1):128-39. PubMed PMID: 25133276
  • Teodorovic LS, Babolin C, Rowland SL, Greaves SA, Baldwin DP, Torres RM, Pelanda R. Activation of Ras overcomes B-cell tolerance to promote differentiation of autoreactive B cells and production of autoantibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jul 8;111(27):E2797-806. PubMed PMID: 24958853
  • Hu J, Oda SK, Shotts K, Donovan EE, Strauch P, Pujanauski LM, Victorino F, Al-Shami A, Fujiwara Y, Tigyi G, Oravecz T, Pelanda R, Torres RM. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5 inhibits B cell antigen receptor signaling and antibody response. J Immunol. 2014 Jul 1;193(1):85-95. PubMed PMID: 24890721
  • Guan Y, Torres RM, Hartney JM. The influence of Arhgef1 on pulmonary leukocyte function. Immunol Res. 2013 Mar;55(1-3):162-6. PubMed PMID: 22941563
  • Swanson CL, Pelanda R, Torres RM. Division of labor during primary humoral immunity. Immunol Res. 2013 Mar;55(1-3):277-86. PubMed PMID: 22945808
  • Pujanauski LM, Janoff EN, McCarter MD, Pelanda R, Torres RM. Mouse marginal zone B cells harbor specificities similar to human broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan 22;110(4):1422-7. PubMed PMID: 23288906
  • Lang J, Kelly M, Freed BM, McCarter MD, Kedl RM, Torres RM, Pelanda R. Studies of lymphocyte reconstitution in a humanized mouse model reveal a requirement of T cells for human B cell maturation. J Immunol. 2013 Mar 1;190(5):2090-101. PubMed PMID: 23335750
  • Saumyaa, Arjunaraja S, Pujanauski L, Colino J, Torres RM, Snapper CM. Immunosuppressive property within the Streptococcus pneumoniae cell wall that inhibits generation of T follicular helper, germinal center, and plasma cell response to a coimmunized heterologous protein. Infect Immun. 2013 Sep;81(9):3426-33. PubMed PMID: 23817619
  • Oda SK, Strauch P, Fujiwara Y, Al-Shami A, Oravecz T, Tigyi G, Pelanda R, Torres RM. LYSOPHOSPHATIDIC ACID INHIBITS CD8 T CELL ACTIVATION AND CONTROL OF TUMOR PROGRESSION. Cancer Immunol Res. 2013 Oct;1:245-255. PubMed PMID: 24455753
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General Information

Graduate Schools:
  • PhD, University of Washington (0001)
Department: Immunology and Microbiology
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13001 East 17th Place
Campus Box C290
Aurora, CO 80045

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