Nanette Santoro, MD
Professor, Ob/Gyn

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Medical School:
  • MD, Albany Medical College (1979)
Undergraduate School:
  • BS, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (NY) (1979)
Internship:
  • Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Beth Israel Medical Center Program (1983)
Residency:
  • Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Beth Israel Medical Center Program, Chief Resident, Obstetrics and Gynecology (1983)
Fellowships:
  • Massachusetts General Hospital Program, Reproductive Endocrinology / Infertility (1986)
Languages: English
Department: Ob/Gyn

Professional Titles

  • Chair

Recognition & Awards

  • Mentor of the Year, Albert Einstein College of Medicine (2006)
    For outstanding mentoring in the Clinical Research Training Program
  • Research in Perimenopause, North American Menopause Society (2004)
    for contributions towards increasing the understanding of the perimenopause

Research Interests

I have been involved in a number of clinical trials that have examined the role of hormone therapy and alternative treatments in menopausal women's health. I have also been involved in epidemiologic research for over 25 years in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, which has followed 3,000 women of 5 different ethnicities who have traversed the menopause. SWAN is examining a variety of outcomes and risk factors for health and disease in US women. I am also studying how obesity in women interferes with fertility and reproductive hormone production. I have also had a longstanding research interest in premature ovarian failure. I am PI for a clinical trial examining treatment for endometriosis. In addition to these grants, I am the lead investigator on 3 mentored research NIH grant awards.

Teaching

  • Professor (2010)
    School of Medicine, Ob/Gyn
    Infertility, Menopause, Osteoporosis, Premature Ovarian Failure/Insufficiency, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Publications

  • El Khoudary SR, Qi M, Chen X, Matthews K, Allshouse AA, Crawford SL, Derby CA, Thurston RC, Kazlauskaite R, Barinas-Mitchell E, Santoro N. Patterns of menstrual cycle length over the menopause transition are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis after menopause. Menopause. 2021 Oct 11. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 34636354
  • Santoro N, Wierman ME. Do Women Need Androgens Like a Fish Needs a Bicycle? A Review of the Literature and Clinical Guidelines. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Dec 1;64(4):784-792. PubMed PMID: 34560765
  • Rios JS, Coward RM, Hansen KR, Barnhart KT, Cedars MI, Legro RS, Diamond MP, Krawetz SA, Usadi R, Baker VL, Sun F, Wild R, Smith JF, Santoro N, Zhang H, Steiner AZ. Sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation: predictors, fertility outcomes, and assays among infertile males. F S Rep. 2021 Sep;2(3):282-288. PubMed PMID: 34553152
  • Santoro N. Getting a grip on older women's health. Menopause. 2021 Sep 20;28(12):1327. PubMed PMID: 34547004
  • Santoro N, Liss J. Compounded Bioidentical Hormones: Myths and Realities. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Dec 1;64(4):793-802. PubMed PMID: 34482337
  • Knudtson JF, Sun F, Coward RM, Hansen KR, Barnhart KT, Smith J, Legro RS, Diamond MP, Krawetz SA, Zhang H, Usadi R, Baker VL, Santoro N, Steiner AZ. The relationship of plasma antioxidant levels to semen parameters: the Males, Antioxidants, and Infertility (MOXI) randomized clinical trial. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2021 Nov;38(11):3005-3013. PubMed PMID: 34455507
  • Santoro N. Foreword: Hormone Use in Gynecology. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Dec 1;64(4):719-720. PubMed PMID: 34446651
  • Pretzel S, Kuhn K, Pal L, Polotsky A, Taylor HS, Zhang H, Robins J, Young SL, Santoro N. Willingness of Women with Endometriosis Planning to Undergo IVF to Participate in a Randomized Clinical Trial and the Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Potential Participation. Reprod Sci. 2021 Aug 6. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 34363198
  • Barnhart KT, Hansen KR, Stephenson MD, Usadi R, Steiner AZ, Cedars MI, Jungheim ES, Hoeger KM, Krawetz SA, Mills B, Alston M, Coutifaris C, Senapati S, Sonalkar S, Diamond MP, Wild RA, Rosen M, Sammel MD, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Huang H, Zhang H. Effect of an Active vs Expectant Management Strategy on Successful Resolution of Pregnancy Among Patients With a Persisting Pregnancy of Unknown Location: The ACT or NOT Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2021 Aug 3;326(5):390-400. PubMed PMID: 34342619
  • Llerena Cari E, Hagen-Lillevik S, Giornazi A, Post M, Komar AA, Appiah L, Bitler B, Polotsky AJ, Santoro N, Kieft J, Lai K, Johnson J. Integrated stress response control of granulosa cell translation and proliferation during normal ovarian follicle development. Mol Hum Reprod. 2021 Aug 7;27(8). PubMed PMID: 34314477
  • Banks N, Sun F, Krawetz SA, Coward RM, Masson P, Smith JF, Trussell JC, Santoro N, Zhang H, Steiner AZ. Male vitamin D status and male factor infertility. Fertil Steril. 2021 Oct;116(4):973-979. PubMed PMID: 34289935
  • Eisenberg E, Legro RS, Diamond MP, Huang H, O'Brien LM, Smith YR, Coutifaris C, Hansen KR, Santoro N, Zhang H. Sleep Habits of Women With Infertility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Oct 21;106(11):e4414-e4426. PubMed PMID: 34180998
  • Peters BA, Xue X, Sheira LA, Qi Q, Sharma A, Santoro N, Alcaide ML, Ofotokun I, Adimora AA, McKay HS, Tien PC, Michel KG, Gustafson D, Turan B, Landay AL, Kaplan RC, Weiser SD. Menopause is associated with immune activation in women with HIV. J Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 26. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 34174074
  • Santoro NF. Type 1 diabetes and reduced ovarian life span: ovotoxicity, increased follicle throughput, or both?. Menopause. 2021 Apr 19;28(7):729-730. PubMed PMID: 33878092
  • Santoro N, Schauer IE, Kuhn K, Fought AJ, Babcock-Gilbert S, Bradford AP. Gonadotropin response to insulin and lipid infusion reproduces the reprometabolic syndrome of obesity in eumenorrheic lean women: a randomized crossover trial. Fertil Steril. 2021 Aug;116(2):566-574. PubMed PMID: 33838870
  • Tannous A, Bradford AP, Kuhn K, Fought A, Schauer I, Santoro N. A randomised trial examining inflammatory signaling in acutely induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia in normal weight women-the reprometabolic syndrome. PLoS One. 2021;16(3):e0247638. PubMed PMID: 33764994
  • Santoro N, Caplan A, Strauss J, Winn VD. A Letter to President Biden and Secretary Designate of HHS Xavier Becerra: Remove Barriers to Federal Funding of Human Embryo and Fetal Tissue Research. Reprod Sci. 2021 Apr;28(4):933-935. PubMed PMID: 33638133
  • Rushing JS, Santoro N. Fertility Issues in Polycystic Ovarian Disease: A Systematic Approach. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2021 Mar;50(1):43-55. PubMed PMID: 33518185
  • Peters BA, Xue X, Wang Z, Usyk M, Santoro N, Sharma A, Anastos K, Tien PC, Golub ET, Weber KM, Gustafson D, Kaplan RC, Burk R, Qi Q. Menopausal status and observed differences in the gut microbiome in women with and without HIV infection. Menopause. 2021 Jan 11;28(5):491-501. PubMed PMID: 33438892
  • Engmann L, Sun F, Legro RS, Diamond MP, Zhang H, Santoro N. Factors associated with study protocol adherence and bio banking participation in reproductive medicine clinical trials and their relationship to live birth. Hum Reprod. 2020 Nov 15. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 33190149
  • Verdiesen RM, van der Schouw YT, van Gils CH, Verschuren WM, Broekmans FJ, Borges MC, Soares AL, Lawlor DA, Eliassen AH, Kraft P, Sandler DP, Harlow SD, Smith JA, Santoro N, Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Murray A, Ruth KS, Onland-Moret NC. Genome-wide association study meta-analysis identifies three novel loci for circulating anti-Müllerian hormone levels in women. medRxiv. 2020 Nov 3. PubMed PMID: 33173903
  • Pinkerton JV, Faubion SS, Kaunitz AM, Liu JH, Manson JE, Santoro NF, Shifren JL, Stuenkel CA. The National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) Report on Compounded Bioidentical Hormone Therapy. Menopause. 2020 Nov;27(11):1199-1201. PubMed PMID: 33110032
  • Vitek W, Sun F, Hoeger KM, Santoro N, Diamond MP, Zhang H, Legro RS. Short-term weight change and live birth among women with unexplained infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing ovulation induction. Fertil Steril. 2020 Nov;114(5):1032-1039. PubMed PMID: 33036790
  • Santoro N, Roeca C, Peters BA, Neal-Perry G. The Menopause Transition: Signs, Symptoms, and Management Options. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Oct 23. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 33095879
  • Jaswa EG, Rios JS, Cedars MI, Santoro NF, Pavone MEG, Legro RS, Huddleston HG. Increased Body Mass Index Is Associated With A Nondilutional Reduction in Antimüllerian Hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Oct 1;105(10). PubMed PMID: 32756952
  • Santoro N, Waldbaum A, Lederman S, Kroll R, Fraser GL, Lademacher C, Skillern L, Young J, Ramael S. Effect of the neurokinin 3 receptor antagonist fezolinetant on patient-reported outcomes in postmenopausal women with vasomotor symptoms: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-ranging study (VESTA). Menopause. 2020 Aug 3. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 32769757
  • Stuenkel CA, Santoro NF, Laughlin-Tommaso SK, Black A, Joffe H, Su HI. NAMS 2019 Pre-Meeting Symposium, September 2019, Chicago Illinois: The Perimenopause. Menopause. 2020 Jul;27(7):735-745. PubMed PMID: 32433263
  • Hansen KR, Peck JD, Coward RM, Wild RA, Trussell JC, Krawetz SA, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Coutifaris C, Alvero R, Robinson RD, Casson P, Christman GM, Santoro N, Zhang H. Intrauterine insemination performance characteristics and post-processing total motile sperm count in relation to live birth for couples with unexplained infertility in a randomised, multicentre clinical trial. Hum Reprod. 2020 Jun 1;35(6):1296-1305. PubMed PMID: 32432326
  • Pinkerton JV, Liu JH, Santoro NF, Thurston RC, Joffe H, Faubion SS, Manson JE. Workshop on normal reference ranges for estradiol in postmenopausal women: commentary from The North American Menopause Society on low-dose vaginal estrogen therapy labeling. Menopause. 2020 Jun;27(6):611-613. PubMed PMID: 32459749
  • Legro RS, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Schlaff WD, Alvero R, Casson P, Christman GM, Rosen RM, Cedars MI, Hansen KR, Robinson R, Baker V, Usadi R, Dodson WC, Estes SJ, Kunselman A, Stetter C, Barnhart KT, Coward RM, Trussell JC, Krawetz SA, Santoro N, Huang H, Zhang H, Eisenberg E. Pregnancy registry: three-year follow-up of children conceived from letrozole, clomiphene, or gonadotropins. Fertil Steril. 2020 May;113(5):1005-1013. PubMed PMID: 32386612
  • Santoro N. Does Hormone Therapy Protect the Heart? It Is a Stressful Question. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 May 1;105(5). PubMed PMID: 32215563
  • Fraser GL, Lederman S, Waldbaum A, Kroll R, Santoro N, Lee M, Skillern L, Ramael S. A phase 2b, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-ranging study of the neurokinin 3 receptor antagonist fezolinetant for vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. Menopause. 2020 Apr;27(4):382-392. PubMed PMID: 32102086
  • Jones K, Ryan S, Carlson NE, Chosich J, Bradford AP, Santoro N, Polotsky AJ. Aromatase Inhibition Ameliorates Decreased LH Output Found in Obese Women. Reprod Sci. 2020 Apr;27(4):1018-1023. PubMed PMID: 32046430
  • Finkelstein JS, Lee H, Karlamangla A, Neer RM, Sluss PM, Burnett-Bowie SM, Darakananda K, Donahoe PK, Harlow SD, Prizand SH, Joffe H, Kumar A, Martin DE, McConnell D, Merrilat S, Morrison A, Pastore LM, Randolph JF, Greendale GA, Santoro N. Antimullerian Hormone and Impending Menopause in Late Reproductive Age: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Apr 1;105(4). PubMed PMID: 31965189
  • Cortés YI, Barinas-Mitchell E, Suder Egnot N, Bhasin S, Jasuja R, Santoro N, Thurston RC. Associations of Endogenous Sex Hormones with Carotid Plaque Burden and Characteristics in Midlife Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Apr 1;105(4). PubMed PMID: 31900485
  • Wang ET, Diamond MP, Alvero R, Casson P, Christman GM, Coutifaris C, Hansen KR, Sun F, Legro RS, Robinson RD, Usadi RS, Pisarska MD, Santoro NF, Zhang H. Androgenicity and fertility treatment in women with unexplained infertility. Fertil Steril. 2020 Mar;113(3):636-641. PubMed PMID: 32192596
  • Steiner AZ, Hansen KR, Barnhart KT, Cedars MI, Legro RS, Diamond MP, Krawetz SA, Usadi R, Baker VL, Coward RM, Huang H, Wild R, Masson P, Smith JF, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. The effect of antioxidants on male factor infertility: the Males, Antioxidants, and Infertility (MOXI) randomized clinical trial. Fertil Steril. 2020 Mar;113(3):552-560.e3. PubMed PMID: 32111479
  • El Khoudary SR, Venugopal V, Manson JE, Brooks MM, Santoro N, Black DM, Harman M, Hodis HN, Brinton EA, Miller VM, Taylor HS, Budoff MJ. Heart fat and carotid artery atherosclerosis progression in recently menopausal women: impact of menopausal hormone therapy: The KEEPS trial. Menopause. 2020 Mar;27(3):255-262. PubMed PMID: 32015261
  • Crandall CJ, Diamant A, Santoro N. Safety of vaginal estrogens: a systematic review. Menopause. 2020 Mar;27(3):339-360. PubMed PMID: 31913230
  • Santoro N, El Khoudary SR, Nasr A, Gold EB, Greendale G, McConnell D, Neal-Perry G, Pavlovic J, Derby C, Crawford S. Daily luteal serum and urinary hormone profiles in the menopause transition: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Menopause. 2020 Feb;27(2):127-133. PubMed PMID: 31794501
  • Rios JS, Greenwood EA, Pavone MEG, Cedars MI, Legro RS, Diamond MP, Santoro N, Sun F, Robinson RD, Christman G, Zhang H, Huddleston HG. Associations Between Anti-Mullerian Hormone and Cardiometabolic Health in Reproductive Age Women Are Explained by Body Mass Index. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Jan 1;105(1). PubMed PMID: 31586179
  • Lersten I, Clain E, Santoro N. Use of Hormone Therapy in Women with Early Menopause and Premature Ovarian Insufficiency. Semin Reprod Med. 2020 Sep;38(4-05):302-308. PubMed PMID: 33540459
  • Rovner P, Keltz J, Allshouse A, Isaac B, Hickmon C, Lesh J, Chosich J, Santoro N. Induction of the LH Surge in Premenarchal Girls Confirms Early Maturation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis. Reprod Sci. 2018 Jan;25(1):33-38. PubMed PMID: 29153058
  • Barnhart K, Giudice L, Young S, Thomas T, Diamond MP, Segars J, Youssef WA, Krawetz S, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Evaluation, validation and refinement of noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for endometriosis (ENDOmarker): A protocol to phenotype bio-specimens for discovery and validation. Contemp Clin Trials. 2018 May;68:1-6. PubMed PMID: 29524590
  • Allshouse AA, Santoro N, Green R, Wong JYY, Upchurch DM, Neal-Perry G, Thurston RC, Derby CA. Religiosity and faith in relation to time to metabolic syndrome for Hispanic women in a multiethnic cohort of women-Findings from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Maturitas. 2018 Jun;112:18-23. PubMed PMID: 29704912
  • Hansen KR, Eisenberg E, Baker V, Hill MJ, Chen S, Talken S, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Coutifaris C, Alvero R, Robinson RD, Casson P, Christman GM, Santoro N, Zhang H, Wild RA. Midluteal Progesterone: A Marker of Treatment Outcomes in Couples With Unexplained Infertility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Jul 1;103(7):2743-2751. PubMed PMID: 29767754
  • Evans-Hoeker EA, Eisenberg E, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Alvero R, Coutifaris C, Casson PR, Christman GM, Hansen KR, Zhang H, Santoro N, Steiner AZ. Major depression, antidepressant use, and male and female fertility. Fertil Steril. 2018 May;109(5):879-887. PubMed PMID: 29778387
  • Thurston RC, Bhasin S, Chang Y, Barinas-Mitchell E, Matthews KA, Jasuja R, Santoro N. Reproductive Hormones and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug 1;103(8):3070-3077. PubMed PMID: 29788255
  • Allshouse A, Pavlovic J, Santoro N. Menstrual Cycle Hormone Changes Associated with Reproductive Aging and How They May Relate to Symptoms. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2018 Dec;45(4):613-628. PubMed PMID: 30401546
  • Diamond MP, Eisenberg E, Huang H, Coutifaris C, Legro RS, Hansen KR, Steiner AZ, Cedars M, Barnhart K, Ziolek T, Thomas TR, Maurer K, Krawetz SA, Wild RA, Trussell JC, Santoro N, Zhang H. The efficiency of single institutional review board review in National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network-initiated clinical trials. Clin Trials. 2018 Oct 24;:1740774518807888. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30354458
  • Barnhart KT, Sammel MD, Stephenson M, Robins J, Hansen KR, Youssef WA, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Optimal treatment for women with a persisting pregnancy of unknown location, a randomized controlled trial: The ACT-or-NOT trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2018 Oct;73:145-151. PubMed PMID: 30243810
  • Christianson MS, Legro RS, Jin S, Eisenberg E, Diamond MP, Hansen KR, Vitek W, Styer AK, Casson P, Coutifaris C, Christman GM, Alvero R, Puscheck EE, Christy AY, Sun F, Zhang H, Polotsky AJ, Santoro N. Comparison of sonohysterography to hysterosalpingogram for tubal patency assessment in a multicenter fertility treatment trial among women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2018 Sep 7. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30194618
  • Gupta MB, Abu Shehab M, Nygard K, Biggar K, Singal SS, Santoro N, Powell TL, Jansson T. IUGR is associated with marked hyperphosphorylation of decidual and maternal plasma IGFBP-1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug 16. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30124960
  • Kent J, Dodson WC, Kunselman A, Pauli J, Stone A, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Schlaff WD, Alvero R, Casson P, Christman GM, Rosen RM, Hansen KR, Robinson RD, Baker V, Usadi R, Santoro N, Zhang H, Eisenberg E, Legro RS. Gestational Weight Gain in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Controlled Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Nov 1;103(11):4315-4323. PubMed PMID: 30085187
  • Barrett ES, Vitek W, Mbowe O, Thurston SW, Legro RS, Alvero R, Baker V, Bates GW, Casson P, Coutifaris C, Eisenberg E, Hansen K, Krawetz S, Robinson R, Rosen M, Usadi R, Zhang H, Santoro N, Diamond M. Allostatic load, a measure of chronic physiological stress, is associated with pregnancy outcomes, but not fertility, among women with unexplained infertility. Hum Reprod. 2018 Sep 1;33(9):1757-1766. PubMed PMID: 30085177
  • Butts SF, Seifer DB, Koelper N, Senapati S, Sammel MD, Hoofnagle AN, Kelly A, Krawetz SA, Santoro N, Zhang H, Diamond MP, Legro RS. Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Poor Ovarian Stimulation Outcome in PCOS but not Unexplained Infertility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug 3. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30085176
  • Delamater L, Santoro N. Management of the Perimenopause. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Sep;61(3):419-432. PubMed PMID: 29952797
  • Santoro N. Feed a hot flash, starve a hot flash?. Menopause. 2017 Jan;24(1):1-2. PubMed PMID: 27801702
  • Greenwood EA, Cedars MI, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Kao CN, Haisenleder DJ, Diamond MP, Huddleston HG. Antimüllerian hormone levels and antral follicle counts are not reduced compared with community controls in patients with rigorously defined unexplained infertility. Fertil Steril. 2017 Dec;108(6):1070-1077. PubMed PMID: 29202959
  • Thurston RC, Chang Y, von Känel R, Barinas-Mitchell E, Jennings JR, Hall MH, Santoro N, Buysse DJ, Matthews KA. Sleep Characteristics and Carotid Atherosclerosis among Midlife Women. Sleep. 2016 Nov 14. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27855752
  • Thurston RC, Chang Y, Barinas-Mitchell E, Jennings JR, Landsittel DP, Santoro N, von Känel R, Matthews KA. Menopausal Hot Flashes and Carotid Intima Media Thickness Among Midlife Women. Stroke. 2016 Dec;47(12):2910-2915. PubMed PMID: 27834746
  • Santoro N, Allshouse A, Neal-Perry G, Pal L, Lobo RA, Naftolin F, Black DM, Brinton EA, Budoff MJ, Cedars MI, Dowling NM, Dunn M, Gleason CE, Hodis HN, Isaac B, Magnani M, Manson JE, Miller VM, Taylor HS, Wharton W, Wolff E, Zepeda V, Harman SM. Longitudinal changes in menopausal symptoms comparing women randomized to low-dose oral conjugated estrogens or transdermal estradiol plus micronized progesterone versus placebo: the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Menopause. 2016 Oct 24. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27779568
  • Thurston RC, Chang Y, Barinas-Mitchell E, von Känel R, Jennings JR, Santoro N, Landsittel DP, Matthews KA. Child Abuse and Neglect and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease Among Midlife Women. Psychosom Med. 2016 Oct 19. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27763988
  • Paramsothy P, Harlow SD, Nan B, Greendale GA, Santoro N, Crawford SL, Gold EB, Tepper PG, Randolph JF Jr. Duration of the menopausal transition is longer in women with young age at onset: the multiethnic Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Menopause. 2016 Sep 26. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27676632
  • Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Trussell JC, Craig LB, Gracia C, Huang H, Alvero R, Casson P, Christman G, Coutifaris C, Diamond M, Jin S, Legro RS, Robinson RD, Schlaff WD, Zhang H. Fertility-related quality of life from two RCT cohorts with infertility: unexplained infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2016 Oct;31(10):2268-79. PubMed PMID: 27402910
  • Owen CM, Pal L, Mumford SL, Freeman R, Isaac B, McDonald L, Santoro N, Taylor HS, Wolff EF. Effects of hormones on skin wrinkles and rigidity vary by race/ethnicity: four-year follow-up from the ancillary skin study of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Fertil Steril. 2016 Oct;106(5):1170-1175.e3. PubMed PMID: 27393520
  • Pavlovic JM, Allshouse AA, Santoro NF, Crawford SL, Thurston RC, Neal-Perry GS, Lipton RB, Derby CA. Sex hormones in women with and without migraine: Evidence of migraine-specific hormone profiles. Neurology. 2016 Jul 5;87(1):49-56. PubMed PMID: 27251885
  • Mumford SL, Legro RS, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Steiner AZ, Schlaff WD, Alvero R, Christman GM, Casson PR, Huang H, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H, Cedars MI. Baseline AMH Level Associated With Ovulation Following Ovulation Induction in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Sep;101(9):3288-96. PubMed PMID: 27228369
  • Kuokkanen S, Polotsky AJ, Chosich J, Bradford AP, Jasinska A, Phang T, Santoro N, Appt SE. Corpus luteum as a novel target of weight changes that contribute to impaired female reproductive physiology and function. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2016 Aug;62(4):227-42. PubMed PMID: 27187064
  • Pal L, Zhang H, Williams J, Santoro NF, Diamond MP, Schlaff WD, Coutifaris C, Carson SA, Steinkampf MP, Carr BR, McGovern PG, Cataldo NA, Gosman GG, Nestler JE, Myers E, Legro RS. Vitamin D Status Relates to Reproductive Outcome in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Secondary Analysis of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Aug;101(8):3027-35. PubMed PMID: 27186859
  • Santoro N, Braunstein GD, Butts CL, Martin KA, McDermott M, Pinkerton JV. Compounded Bioidentical Hormones in Endocrinology Practice: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Apr;101(4):1318-43. PubMed PMID: 27032319
  • Umland EM, Karel L, Santoro N. Bazedoxifene and Conjugated Equine Estrogen: A Combination Product for the Management of Vasomotor Symptoms and Osteoporosis Prevention Associated with Menopause. Pharmacotherapy. 2016 May;36(5):548-61. PubMed PMID: 27027527
  • Davis SR, Worsley R, Miller KK, Parish SJ, Santoro N. Androgens and Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction--Findings From the Fourth International Consultation of Sexual Medicine. J Sex Med. 2016 Feb;13(2):168-78. PubMed PMID: 26953831
  • Hansen KR, He AL, Styer AK, Wild RA, Butts S, Engmann L, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Coutifaris C, Alvero R, Robinson RD, Casson P, Christman GM, Huang H, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Predictors of pregnancy and live-birth in couples with unexplained infertility after ovarian stimulation-intrauterine insemination. Fertil Steril. 2016 Jun;105(6):1575-1583.e2. PubMed PMID: 26949110
  • Santoro N, Worsley R, Miller KK, Parish SJ, Davis SR. Role of Estrogens and Estrogen-Like Compounds in Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2016 Mar;13(3):305-16. PubMed PMID: 26944462
  • Worsley R, Santoro N, Miller KK, Parish SJ, Davis SR. Hormones and Female Sexual Dysfunction: Beyond Estrogens and Androgens--Findings from the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine. J Sex Med. 2016 Mar;13(3):283-90. PubMed PMID: 26944460
  • Thurston RC, Matthews KA, Chang Y, Santoro N, Barinas-Mitchell E, von Känel R, Landsittel DP, Jennings JR. Changes in heart rate variability during vasomotor symptoms among midlife women. Menopause. 2016 May;23(5):499-505. PubMed PMID: 26926327
  • Santoro N. Perimenopause: From Research to Practice. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2016 Apr;25(4):332-9. PubMed PMID: 26653408
  • Lynch AM, Wagner BD, Deterding RR, Giclas PC, Gibbs RS, Janoff EN, Holers VM, Santoro NF. The relationship of circulating proteins in early pregnancy with preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Apr;214(4):517.e1-8. PubMed PMID: 26576488
  • El Khoudary SR, Santoro N, Chen HY, Tepper PG, Brooks MM, Thurston RC, Janssen I, Harlow SD, Barinas-Mitchell E, Selzer F, Derby CA, Jackson EA, McConnell D, Matthews KA. Trajectories of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone over the menopause transition and early markers of atherosclerosis after menopause. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 May;23(7):694-703. PubMed PMID: 26385249
  • Al-Safi ZA, Liu H, Carlson NE, Chosich J, Lesh J, Robledo C, Bradford AP, Gee NA, Phang T, Santoro N, Kohrt W, Polotsky AJ. Estradiol Priming Improves Gonadotrope Sensitivity and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Obese Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Nov;100(11):4372-4381. PubMed PMID: 26425884
  • Steiner AZ, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Schlaff WD, Barnhart KT, Casson PR, Christman GM, Alvero R, Hansen KR, Geisler WM, Thomas T, Santoro N, Zhang H, Eisenberg E. Chlamydia trachomatis immunoglobulin G3 seropositivity is a predictor of reproductive outcomes in infertile women with patent fallopian tubes. Fertil Steril. 2015 Sep 25. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26413816
  • Diamond MP, Legro RS, Coutifaris C, Alvero R, Robinson RD, Casson P, Christman GM, Ager J, Huang H, Hansen KR, Baker V, Usadi R, Seungdamrong A, Bates GW, Rosen RM, Haisenleder D, Krawetz SA, Barnhart K, Trussell JC, Ohl D, Jin Y, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Letrozole, Gonadotropin, or Clomiphene for Unexplained Infertility. N Engl J Med. 2015 Sep 24;373(13):1230-40. PubMed PMID: 26398071
  • Usadi RS, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Schlaff WD, Hansen KR, Casson P, Christman G, Wright Bates G, Baker V, Seungdamrong A, Rosen MP, Lucidi S, Thomas T, Huang H, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H, Alvero R. Recruitment strategies in two reproductive medicine network infertility trials. Contemp Clin Trials. 2015 Sep 16. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26386293
  • El Khoudary SR, Santoro N, Chen HY, Tepper PG, Brooks MM, Thurston RC, Janssen I, Harlow SD, Barinas-Mitchell E, Selzer F, Derby CA, Jackson EA, McConnell D, Matthews KA. Trajectories of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone over the menopause transition and early markers of atherosclerosis after menopause. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2015 Sep 18. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26385249
  • Grindler NM, Santoro NF. Menopause and exercise. Menopause. 2015 Sep 21. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26382311
  • Kuang H, Jin S, Thomas T, Engmann L, Hansen KR, Coutifaris C, Casson P, Christman G, Alvero R, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Zhang H. Predictors of participant retention in infertility treatment trials. Fertil Steril. 2015 Nov;104(5):1236-1243.e2. PubMed PMID: 26354094
  • Santoro N, Pal L. Menopause and Perimenopause. Preface. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015 Sep;44(3):xvii-xviii. PubMed PMID: 26316251
  • Santoro N, Epperson CN, Mathews SB. Menopausal Symptoms and Their Management. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015 Sep;44(3):497-515. PubMed PMID: 26316239
  • Kuang H, Jin S, Hansen KR, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Casson P, Christman G, Alvero R, Huang H, Bates GW, Usadi R, Lucidi S, Baker V, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Legro RS, Zhang H. Identification and replication of prediction models for ovulation, pregnancy and live birth in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2015 Sep;30(9):2222-33. PubMed PMID: 26202922
  • Gleason CE, Dowling NM, Wharton W, Manson JE, Miller VM, Atwood CS, Brinton EA, Cedars MI, Lobo RA, Merriam GR, Neal-Perry G, Santoro NF, Taylor HS, Black DM, Budoff MJ, Hodis HN, Naftolin F, Harman SM, Asthana S. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Cognition and Mood in Recently Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Randomized, Controlled KEEPS-Cognitive and Affective Study. PLoS Med. 2015 Jun;12(6):e1001833; discussion e1001833. PubMed PMID: 26035291
  • Polotsky AJ, Allshouse AA, Casson PR, Coutifaris C, Diamond MP, Christman GM, Schlaff WD, Alvero R, Trussell JC, Krawetz SA, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H, Legro RS. Impact of Male and Female Weight, Smoking, and Intercourse Frequency on Live Birth in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jun;100(6):2405-12. PubMed PMID: 25856211
  • Santoro N. What to do when the numbers don't add up. Fertil Steril. 2015 May;103(5):1150. PubMed PMID: 25782620
  • Allshouse AA, Polotsky A, Crawford S, Chen HY, El Khoudary SR, Santoro N. Consistent ovulation may not be enough to make women healthy when approaching menopause: an update from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Menopause. 2015 Mar;22(3):267-74. PubMed PMID: 25714237
  • Diamond MP, Legro RS, Coutifaris C, Alvero R, Robinson RD, Casson P, Christman GM, Ager J, Huang H, Hansen KR, Baker V, Usadi R, Seungdamrong A, Bates GW, Rosen RM, Haisonleder D, Krawetz SA, Barnhart K, Trussell JC, Jin Y, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Assessment of multiple intrauterine gestations from ovarian stimulation (AMIGOS) trial: baseline characteristics. Fertil Steril. 2015 Apr;103(4):962-973.e4. PubMed PMID: 25707331
  • Pinkerton JV, Santoro N. Compounded bioidentical hormone therapy: identifying use trends and knowledge gaps among US women. Menopause. 2015 Sep;22(9):926-36. PubMed PMID: 25692877
  • Merhi Z, Polotsky AJ, Bradford AP, Buyuk E, Chosich J, Phang T, Jindal S, Santoro N. Adiposity Alters Genes Important in Inflammation and Cell Cycle Division in Human Cumulus Granulosa Cell. Reprod Sci. 2015 Oct;22(10):1220-8. PubMed PMID: 25676576
  • Wooding KM, Hankin JA, Johnson CA, Chosich JD, Baek SW, Bradford AP, Murphy RC, Santoro N. Measurement of estradiol, estrone, and testosterone in postmenopausal human serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry without derivatization. Steroids. 2015 Apr;96:89-94. PubMed PMID: 25617740
  • Legro RS, Brzyski RG, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Schlaff WD, Alvero R, Casson P, Christman GM, Huang H, Yan Q, Haisenleder DJ, Barnhart KT, Bates GW, Usadi R, Lucidi R, Baker V, Trussell JC, Krawetz SA, Snyder P, Ohl D, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Reproductive Medicine Network. The Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II study: baseline characteristics and effects of obesity from a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Fertil Steril. 2014 Jan;101(1):258-269.e8. PubMed PMID: 24156957
  • Wierman ME, Arlt W, Basson R, Davis SR, Miller KK, Murad MH, Rosner W, Santoro N. Androgen therapy in women: a reappraisal: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Oct;99(10):3489-510. PubMed PMID: 25279570
  • Harman SM, Black DM, Naftolin F, Brinton EA, Budoff MJ, Cedars MI, Hopkins PN, Lobo RA, Manson JE, Merriam GR, Miller VM, Neal-Perry G, Santoro N, Taylor HS, Vittinghoff E, Yan M, Hodis HN. Arterial imaging outcomes and cardiovascular risk factors in recently menopausal women: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Aug 19;161(4):249-60. PubMed PMID: 25069991
  • Legro RS, Brzyski RG, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Schlaff WD, Casson P, Christman GM, Huang H, Yan Q, Alvero R, Haisenleder DJ, Barnhart KT, Bates GW, Usadi R, Lucidi S, Baker V, Trussell JC, Krawetz SA, Snyder P, Ohl D, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H, NICHD Reproductive Medicine Network. Letrozole versus clomiphene for infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jul 10;371(2):119-29. PubMed PMID: 25006718
  • Allshouse AA, Semple AL, Santoro NF. Evidence for prolonged and unique amenorrhea-related symptoms in women with premature ovarian failure/primary ovarian insufficiency. Menopause. 2014 Jul 7. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25003622
  • Khan UI, Wang D, Karvonen-Gutierrez CA, Khalil N, Ylitalo KR, Santoro N. Progression from metabolically benign to at-risk obesity in perimenopausal women: a longitudinal analysis of study of women across the nation (SWAN). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jul;99(7):2516-25. PubMed PMID: 24846534
  • Al-Safi ZA, Roth L, Chosich J, Bradford A, Polotsky A, Santoro N. Elevated insulin in obese women relates to low endogenous luteinizing hormone. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 May;123 Suppl 1:95S. PubMed PMID: 24770310
  • Roth LW, Bradshaw-Pierce EL, Allshouse AA, Lesh J, Chosich J, Bradford AP, Polotsky AJ, Santoro N. Evidence of GnRH antagonist escape in obese women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 May;99(5):E871-5. PubMed PMID: 24650013
  • Al-Safi ZA, Santoro N. Menopausal hormone therapy and menopausal symptoms. Fertil Steril. 2014 Apr;101(4):905-15. PubMed PMID: 24613533
  • Roth LW, Allshouse AA, Bradshaw-Pierce EL, Lesh J, Chosich J, Kohrt W, Bradford AP, Polotsky AJ, Santoro N. Luteal phase dynamics of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones in obese and normal weight women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014 Sep;81(3):418-25. PubMed PMID: 24576183
  • Polotsky AJ, Allshouse AA, Crawford SL, Harlow SD, Khalil N, Kazlauskaite R, Santoro N, Legro RS. Hyperandrogenic oligomenorrhea and metabolic risks across menopausal transition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jun;99(6):2120-7. PubMed PMID: 24517154
  • Ross LA, Polotsky AJ, Kucherov A, Bradford AP, Lesh J, Chosich J, Gee N, Santoro N. Profound reduction of ovarian estrogen by aromatase inhibition in obese women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Jun;22(6):1464-9. PubMed PMID: 24482405
  • Legro RS, Brzyski RG, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Schlaff WD, Alvero R, Casson P, Christman GM, Huang H, Yan Q, Haisenleder DJ, Barnhart KT, Bates GW, Usadi R, Lucidi R, Baker V, Trussell JC, Krawetz SA, Snyder P, Ohl D, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Reproductive Medicine Network. The Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II study: baseline characteristics and effects of obesity from a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Fertil Steril. 2014 Jan;101(1):258-269.e8. PubMed PMID: 24156957
  • Roth LW, Allshouse AA, Lesh J, Polotsky AJ, Santoro N. The correlation between self-reported and measured height, weight, and BMI in reproductive age women. Maturitas. 2013 Oct;76(2):185-8. PubMed PMID: 23958434
  • Wooding KM, Barkley RM, Hankin JA, Johnson CA, Bradford AP, Santoro N, Murphy RC. Mechanism of formation of the major estradiol product ions following collisional activation of the molecular anion in a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2013 Oct;24(10):1451-5. PubMed PMID: 23955001
  • Santoro NF. Perception is 9/10 of the law. Menopause. 2013 Aug;20(8):799. PubMed PMID: 23777902
  • Ogorodnikova AD, Khan UI, McGinn AP, Zeb I, Budoff MJ, Harman SM, Miller VM, Brinton EA, Manson JE, Hodis HN, Merriam GR, Cedars MI, Taylor HS, Naftolin F, Lobo RA, Santoro N, Wildman RP. Ectopic fat and adipokines in metabolically benign overweight/obese women: the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Aug;21(8):1726-33. PubMed PMID: 23670850
  • Al-Safi ZA, Santoro N. SWAN: key findings to date and more to come. Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2013 May;9(3):217-9. PubMed PMID: 23638776
  • Wildman RP, Wang D, Fernandez I, Mancuso P, Santoro N, Scherer PE, Sowers MR. Associations of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin with adipose tissue hormones in midlife women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Mar;21(3):629-36. PubMed PMID: 23592672
  • Santoro N. BRCA mutations and fertility: do not push the envelope!. Fertil Steril. 2013 May;99(6):1560. PubMed PMID: 23380183
  • Wolff EF, He Y, Black DM, Brinton EA, Budoff MJ, Cedars MI, Hodis HN, Lobo RA, Manson JE, Merriam GR, Miller VM, Naftolin F, Pal L, Santoro N, Zhang H, Harman SM, Taylor HS. Self-reported menopausal symptoms, coronary artery calcification, and carotid intima-media thickness in recently menopausal women screened for the Kronos early estrogen prevention study (KEEPS). Fertil Steril. 2013 Apr;99(5):1385-91. PubMed PMID: 23312232
  • Miller VM, Petterson TM, Jeavons EN, Lnu AS, Rider DN, Heit JA, Cunningham JM, Huggins GS, Hodis HN, Budoff MJ, Santoro N, Hopkins PN, Lobo RA, Manson JE, Naftolin F, Taylor HS, Harman SM, de Andrade M. Genetic polymorphisms associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcification in women of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Physiol Genomics. 2013 Jan 15;45(2):79-88. PubMed PMID: 23188791
  • Marlatt KL, Pitynski-Miller DR, Gavin KM, Moreau KL, Melanson EL, Santoro N, Kohrt WM. Body composition and cardiometabolic health across the menopause transition. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2022 Jan;30(1):14-27. doi: 10.1002/oby.23289. PMID: 34932890.
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Professional Memberships

  • The Endocrine Society (ENDO), member, past Vice-President for Clinical Research
  • American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), Member, past member of Board of Directors; Chair, Publications Committee
  • Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (SREI), Member, Immediate Past President
  • American Association of Gynecologists and Obstetricians Foundation (AAOGF), Member, Secretary-Treasurer
  • Society for Gynecologic Investigation (SRI), Member, Past Director
  • Women in Endocrinology (WE), Member, Past President
  • American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ABOG), Member, Past Director, Past Treasurer
  • American Gynecologic and Obstetrical Society (AGOS), Member, Council Member
  • Reproductive Medicine Network (RMN), Chair, Steering Committee
  • North American Menopause Society (NAMS), Member

Specialty Information

Specialties
  • Reproductive Endocrinology / Infertility, Board Certification (1988)
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology, Board Certification (1987)
Conditions & Treatments
  • Brain and Nervous System - Pituitary Disorders
  • Endocrine System (Hormones) - Thyroid Disease
  • Endocrine System (Hormones) - Adrenal Diseases
  • Pregnancy and Reproduction - Infertility / Fertility Treatment
  • Women's Health - Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • Women's Health - Menopause
  • Pregnancy and Reproduction - Endocrine Disorders
  • Endocrine System (Hormones) - Osteoporosis
  • Women's Health
  • Brain and Nervous System
  • Endocrine System (Hormones)
  • Pregnancy and Reproduction
Clinical Interests
Fertility, Infertility, fertility preservation, Menopause, Premature Menopause, Osteoporosis, Hot Flashes, Amenorrhea, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, In Vitro Fertilization

Care Philosophy
I have two practice locations: 1) Menopause and Hormone Therapy Patients: Cherry Creek Medical Center, Gynecology Specialty. 100 Cook Street Denver, CO 80206 Suite 312 Clinic Phone: 720-674-7157 2) Fertility Patients: Shady Grove Fertility. 8200 E. Belleview Ave Greenwood Village, CO 80111 Clinic Phone: 720-704-8221

Public Speaking
Yes

General Information

Medical Schools:
  • MD, Albany Medical College (1979)
Undergraduate Schools:
  • BS, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (NY) (1979)
Internships:
  • Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Beth Israel Medical Center Program (1983)
Residency Programs:
  • Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Beth Israel Medical Center Program, Chief Resident, Obstetrics and Gynecology (1983)
Fellowships:
  • Massachusetts General Hospital Program, Reproductive Endocrinology / Infertility (1986)
Download CV
Languages: English
Department: Ob/Gyn
Contact Us
CU Anschutz
Fitzsimons Building

13001 East 17th Place
Campus Box C290
Aurora, CO 80045

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